Summary of Changes

Modified Course

BIO 491 Seminar in Biological and Biomedical Research

  • Removal of required BIO and CHE prerequisites.

Modified Programs

BS Biology: Cellular and Molecular Option

  • Course substitutions for Upper Division Required Courses:
CHE 310 (4 units) or CHE 300 (3 units)
CHE 311 OR CHE 301
CHE 312 OR CHE 302
CHE 313 (2 units) OR CHE 303 (1 unit)
BIO 421 OR BIO 440
  • Upper Division Requirement units changed from 37 units to 35-37 units.
  • Required Course units changed from 23 units to 21-23 units.
  • Total minimum Option units decreased from 78 to 76 units.
  • Total minimum Major Requirement units decreased from 78 units to 76 units.

BS Biology: Ecology and Environmental Option

  • Course substitutions for Upper Division Required Courses:
    CHE 310 (4 units) OR CHE 300 (3 units)
    CHE 311 OR CHE 301
    CHE 312 OR CHE 302
    CHE 313 (2 units) OR CHE 303 (1 unit)
  • Upper Division Requirement units changed from 37 units to 35-37 units.
  • Total minimum Option units decreased from 78 to 76 units.

BS Biology: Microbiology Option

  • Course substitutions for Upper Division Required Courses:
CHE 310 (4 units) OR CHE 300 (3 units)
CHE 311 OR CHE 301
CHE 312 OR CHE 302
CHE 313 (2 units) OR CHE 303 (1 unit)
  • Upper Division Requirement units changed from 31 units to 29-31 units.
  • Total minimum Option units decreased from 81 units to 79 units.

BIOLOGY

College of Natural and Behavioral Sciences

Department of Biology

Bachelor of Arts

 Bachelor of Science

Cellular and Molecular Biology Option

Ecology and Environmental Biology Option

Microbiology Option

Minors

Biology

Microbiology

Subject Matter Preparation Program

Specific Biological Sciences Subject Matter Authorization 

Master of Science

Faculty

John Thomlinson, Department Chair

Helen Chun, Graduate Program Coordinator

Katherine Bates, John Carvalho, H.K. Choi, Helen Chun, Getachew Kidane, ThomasLandefeld, Terrence McGlynn, Davood Soleymani

Department Office: NSM A-143, (310) 243-3381

Emeriti Faculty

David E. Brest, Lois W. Chi, Evelyn Tutt Childress, Robert V. Giacosie, Carol Guze, Gene A.Kalland, Richard Kuramoto, Francis McCarthy, Laura M. Phillips, John Roberts, Laura Robles

Program Description

The Biology Program at CSU Dominguez Hills is designed to provide students with intensive, progressive and balanced learning experiences in cell and molecular biology, organismalbiology, population and community biology, and environmental science.

The Biology Department offers students seven programs from which to choose: 1) An undergraduate program which awards the Bachelor of Arts Degree; 2) Three undergraduate major options that award the Bachelor of Science Degree: a Cellular and Molecular Biology Option, an Ecology and Environmental Biology Option and a Microbiology Option; 3) Two minor programs: a General Minor and a Microbiology Minor; 4) A Biological Science Subject Matter Preparation Program for students pursuing a secondary teaching credential; 5) A graduate program which awards the Master of Science Degree.

Features

The most important feature of the Biology Department is its excellent faculty, all members of which hold the doctorate. They are dedicated to excellence in teaching and are active in basic and applied research and other scholarly activities. The department currently has more than $1.5 million in private foundation, federal and international research grants. Another attractive feature of the department is its small class size. This allows students to interact frequently and effectively with instructors both within and outside of class. It also permits instructors to easily identify students in need of additional assistance, and to supply such assistance.

The Biology Department's teaching and research facilities are modern and well equipped. Special facilities and equipment that are available for student use include a tissue culture laboratory, controlled temperature rooms, a greenhouse and a nature preserve. In addition to on-campus facilities, students may study marine biology and desert biology through the use of facilities available in the Southern California Ocean Studies Consortium and the Desert Studies Consortium. Excellent computer and library facilities also are available.

Since the Biology faculty maintains several diverse research programs that are well supported with public and private funds, the department can provide both undergraduate and graduate students with opportunities to actively participate in research. Biology students have been successful, not only in conducting research, but in presenting reports at scientific meetings, publishing their findings and in receiving national recognition for the high quality of their work.

Academic Advisement

The Biology Department requires that each semester prior to or during registration, students meet with their biology advisor to review their progress, select new courses, update their advisement file (departmental files are maintained for all majors and graduate students), and to discuss any special problems they may have encountered.

Preparation

Students who plan to enter the biology program directly from high school should prepare by completing four years of English, including composition; algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and pre-calculus if available; and at least one year each of biology, chemistry and physics.

Students transferring from a community college should have completed one semester of calculus or, if not taken in high school, algebra, geometry and trigonometry, and one year each of introductory chemistry and biology (3 semester course) designed for the transfer major.

Career Possibilities

A student in the Biology Department will be prepared to pursue a variety of career opportunities, depending on the curricular program chosen. An undergraduate major may choose any of the options. The Cellular and Molecular Biology Option can fulfill the major entrance requirements for professional schools of medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry and medical technology, or prepare the student for further graduate study in biology. Biology graduates from CSU Dominguez Hills have competed successfully for admission to professional and graduate schools in California and elsewhere. Students also may use the Cellular and Molecular Biology Option to prepare for careers in teaching, research, government, academia or the biotechnology industry. The Ecology and Environmental Biology option will prepare students for graduate studies or careers with federal, state, and local agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and consultants and careers in teaching, among others. The Microbiology Option provides training in microbiology, medical microbiology, immunology and related courses (virology, mycology andparasitology) for students interested in a career in applied biology, biomedical research or allied fields.

Students may prepare for a career in teaching science at the secondary level (junior high or high school) by completing an approved "Subject Matter Preparation Program." Completion of such a program is the first step in meeting the state requirements for a teaching credential. Interested students should consult the departmentally designated advisor for current information.

The Master of Science program in Biology will provide students with an in-depth background suitable for pursuing a career in biological research, teaching or in a related field such as public health, psychology and human services. Students may develop a program of courses and research that is tailor-made to their individual needs within the areas of expertise of their advising faculty. The graduate program also can establish a strong foundation for professional training in medicine, dentistry, paramedical areas and Ph.D. programs.

Pre-Medical Professions Training in Biology

Students who wish to satisfy the entrance requirements of professional schools of medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, or other medical areas usually choose to major either in chemistry or biology. Students majoring in biology and seeking admission to a medical school in California should complete the requirements for the Biology Degree and take the following courses. They should first make an appointment through the biology department office to see the Pre-Health Advisor.

CHE 310. Organic Chemistry I (4) and

CHE 311. Organic Chemistry Laboratory I (1)

CHE 312. Organic Chemistry II (3) and

CHE 313. Organic Chemistry Laboratory II (2)

Also recommended are the following courses which are suggested by many medical schools:

BIO 314. Developmental Biology (3)

BIO 315. Developmental Biology Laboratory (1)

CHE 230. Quantitative Analysis (4)

CHE 450. Biochemistry I (4)

CHE 451. Biochemistry Laboratory I (1)

The following courses are not usually required for inclusion in premedical programs of study, but it is recommended that students consider them when planning their academic program. Many former students have found them to be a valuable preview of courses that must be taken in medical school.

BIO 422. Histology (3)

BIO 424. Histology Laboratory (1)

BIO 453. Endocrinology (3)

BIO 483. Human Physiology (3)

Graduation with Honors

An undergraduate student may be a candidate for graduation with Honors in Biology provided the following criteria are satisfied:

  1. A minimum of 36 units in residence at CSU Dominguez Hills;
  2. A minimum grade point average of 3.5 in all courses used
    to satisfy the upper division requirements in the major;
  3. Recommendation by the Biology Department faculty.

Students who achieve Honors in Biology will have the information recorded on their transcripts and diplomas.

Bachelor of Arts in Biology

Total Course Requirements for the Bachelor's Degree

See the "Requirements for the Bachelor's Degree" in the University Catalog for complete details on general degree requirements. A minimum of 40 units, including those required for the major, must be upper division.

Elective Requirements

Completion of elective courses (beyond the requirements listed below) to reach a total of a minimum of 120 units.

General Education Requirements (45-50 units)

See the "General Education" requirements in the University Catalog or the Class Schedule for the most current information on General Education requirements and course offerings. Please note that Biology Majors are not required to take classes listed in Area B of the General Education requirements.

Graduation Writing Assessment Requirement

See the "Graduation Writing Assessment Requirement" in the University Catalog.

Minor Requirements

Single-field major. No minor is required, though it is recommended..

Major Requirements (64-67 units)

All courses applied to the B.A. in Biology must be passed with a grade of "C" or better.

A. Prerequisite Courses (41 units):

BIO 120. Principles of Biology I (3)

BIO 121. Principles of Biology I Laboratory (1)

BIO 122. Principles of Biology II (3)

BIO 123. Principles of Biology II Laboratory (1)

BIO 124. Principles of Biology III (3)

BIO 125. Principles of Biology III Laboratory (1)

BIO 220. Molecular Biology (3)

BIO 221. Molecular Biology Laboratory (1)

CHE 110. General Chemistry I (5)

CHE 112. General Chemistry II (5)

CHE 316. Survey of Organic Chemistry (3) and

CHE 317. Survey of Organic Chemistry Laboratory (1)

MAT 131. Elementary Statistics & Probability (3)

PHY 120. Elements of Physics I (4)

PHY 122. Elements of Physics II (4)

B. Core Upper Division Requirements (10 units):

BIO 320. Cell Biology (3)

BIO 340. Genetics (3)*

BIO 342. Cell and Genetics Laboratory (1)

BIO 490. Senior Project (3)**

C. Additional Upper Division Requirements (13-16 units)

1. Select one course and the respective laboratory from the following (4 units):

BIO 310. Plant Physiology (3)

BIO 311. Plant Physiology Laboratory (1)

BIO 312. Animal Physiology (3)

BIO 313. Animal Physiology Laboratory (1)

BIO 314. Developmental Biology (3)

BIO 315. Developmental Biology Laboratory (1)

BIO 324. Microbiology (3)

BIO 325. Microbiology Laboratory (1)

2. Select three additional upper division biology courses (9-12 units).

*NOTE: Major students may substitute this course for General Education Area F2. Please contact the University Advisement Center to request the course substitution.

**NOTE: Major students may substitute this course for General Education Area E. Please contact the University Advisement Center to request the course substitution.

Bachelor of Science in Biology

Total Course Requirements for the Bachelor's Degree

See the "Requirements for the Bachelor's Degree" in the University Catalog for complete details on general degree requirements. A minimum of 40 units, including those required for the major, must be upper division.

Elective Requirements

Completion of elective courses (beyond the requirements listed below) to reach a total of a minimum of 120 or a maximum of 132 units.

General Education Requirements (45-50 units)

See the "General Education" requirements in the University Catalog or the Class Schedule for the most current information on General Education requirements and course offerings. Please note that Biology Majors are not required to take classes listed in Area B of the General Education requirements.

Graduation Writing Assessment Requirement

See the "Graduation Writing Assessment Requirement" in the University Catalog.

Minor Requirements

Single field major, no minor required. However, for students who wish to complete the Biochemistry minor, Organic Chemistry is considered a pre-requisite class for both programs and therefore can be double counted for both major and minor requirements.

Major Requirements (76-84 units)

Students must select one of the options listed.

All courses applied to the B.S. in Biology must be passed with a grade of "C" or better.

Cellular and Molecular Biology Option (76-81 units)

A. Lower Division Requirements (41-44 units)

BIO 120. Principles of Biology I (3)

BIO 121. Principles of Biology I Laboratory (1)

BIO 122. Principles of Biology II (3)

BIO 123. Principles of Biology II Laboratory (1)

BIO 124. Principles of Biology III (3)

BIO 125. Principles of Biology III Laboratory (1)

BIO 220. Molecular Biology (3)

BIO 221. Molecular Biology Laboratory (1)

CHE 110. General Chemistry I (5)

CHE 112. General Chemistry II (5)

MAT 131. Elementary Statistics and Probability (3)

MAT 171. Survey of Calculus I (4) or

MAT 191. Calculus I (5)

PHY 120. Elements of Physics I (4) and

PHY 122. Elements of Physics II (4) or

PHY 130. General Physics I (5) and

PHY 132. General Physics II (5)

B. Upper Division Requirements (35-37 units)

1. Required courses (21-23 units):

BIO 320. Cell Biology (3)

BIO 340. Genetics (3)*

BIO 342. Cell and Genetics Laboratory (1)

BIO 421. Advanced Molecular Biology (3) or

BIO 440. Molecular Genetics (3)

BIO 490. Senior Project (3)**

CHE 310. or CHE 300. Organic Chemistry I (4, 3) and

CHE 311. or CHE 301. Organic Chemistry I Laboratory (1)

CHE 312. or CHE 302. Organic Chemistry II (3) and

CHE 313. or CHE 303. Organic Chemistry Laboratory II (2, 1)

2. Select one course and the respective lab from the following (4 units):

BIO 310. Plant Physiology (3)

BIO 311. Plant Physiology Laboratory (1)

BIO 312. Animal Physiology (3)

BIO 313. Animal Physiology Laboratory (1)

BIO 314. Developmental Biology (3)

BIO 315. Developmental Biology Laboratory (1)

BIO 324. Microbiology (3)

BIO 325. Microbiology Laboratory (1)

3. Select a minimum of 10 additional units of upper division Biology or Chemistry Courses (10 units).

Ecology and Environmental Biology Option (76-81 units)

A. Lower Division Requirements (41-44 units):

BIO 120. Principles of Biology I (3)

BIO 121. Principles of Biology I Laboratory (1)

BIO 122. Principles of Biology II (3)

BIO 123. Principles of Biology II Laboratory (1)

BIO 124. Principles of Biology III (3)

BIO 125. Principles of Biology III Laboratory (1)

BIO 220. Molecular Biology (3)

BIO 221. Molecular Biology Laboratory (1)

CHE 110. General Chemistry I (5)

CHE 112. General Chemistry II (5)

MAT 131. Elementary Statistics and Probability (3)

MAT 171. Survey of Calculus I (4) or

MAT 191. Calculus I (5)

PHY 120. Elements of Physics I (4) and

PHY 122. Elements of Physics II (4) or

PHY 130. General Physics I (5) and

PHY 132. General Physics II (5)

B. Upper Division Requirements (35-37 units)

1. Required courses (18 units):

BIO 310. Plant Physiology (3)

BIO 311. Plant Physiology Laboratory (1)

BIO 312. Animal Physiology (3)

BIO 313. Animal Physiology Laboratory (1)

BIO 332. Ecology (3)

BIO 333. Ecology Laboratory (1)

BIO 340. Genetics (3)*

BIO 490. Senior Project (3)**

2. Restricted elective courses. Select a series from the following (4-10 units):

CHE 310. or CHE 300. Organic Chemistry I (4, 3) and

CHE 311. or CHE 301. Organic Chemistry I Laboratory (1)

CHE 312. or CHE 302. Organic Chemistry II (3) and

CHE 313. or CHE 303. Organic Chemistry Laboratory II (2, 1) or

CHE 316. Survey of Organic Chemistry (3) and

CHE 317. Survey of Organic Chemistry Laboratory (1)

3. Open elective courses. Select a minimum of 9-15 additional units of upper division Biology, Chemistry, Anthropology or Earth Science courses approved by a Biology advisor. (9-15 units).

Microbiology Option (79-84 units)

A. Lower Division Requirements (41-44 units):

BIO 120. Principles of Biology I (3)

BIO 121. Principles of Biology I Laboratory (1)

BIO 122. Principles of Biology II (3)

BIO 123. Principles of Biology II Laboratory (1)

BIO 124. Principles of Biology III (3)

BIO 125. Principles of Biology III Laboratory (1)

BIO 220. Molecular Biology (3)

BIO 221. Molecular Biology Laboratory (1)

CHE 110. General Chemistry I (5)

CHE 112. General Chemistry II (5)

MAT 131. Elementary Statistics and Probability (3)

MAT 171. Survey of Calculus I (4) or

MAT 191. Calculus I (5)

PHY 120. Elements of Physics I (4) and

PHY 122. Elements of Physics II (4) or

PHY 130. General Physics I (5) and

PHY 132. General Physics II (5)

B. Upper Division Requirements (29-31 units):

BIO 320. Cell Biology (3)

BIO 324. Microbiology (3)

BIO 325. Microbiology Laboratory (1)

BIO 340. Genetics (3)*

BIO 425. Medical Bacteriology (2)

BIO 435. Medical Bacteriology Laboratory (2)

BIO 426. Immunology (3)

BIO 436. Immunology Laboratory (1)

BIO 490. Senior Project (3)**

CHE 310. or CHE 300. Organic Chemistry I (4, 3) and

CHE 311. or CHE 301. Organic Chemistry I Laboratory (1)

CHE 312. or CHE 302. Organic Chemistry II (3) and

CHE 313. Or CHE 303. Organic Chemistry Laboratory II (2, 1)

 

C. Electives: Select a minimum of 9 units from the following:

BIO 420. Histotechnique (2) and

BIO 419. Histotechnique Laboratory (2)

BIO 421. Advanced Molecular Biology (3)

BIO 422. Histology (3) and

BIO 424. Histology Laboratory (1)

BIO 428. Virology (3)

BIO 458. Human Parasitology (3) and

BIO 459. Human Parasitology Laboratory (1)

CHE 450. Biochemistry I (4) and

CHE 451. Biochemistry Laboratory I (1) or

CHE 456. Clinical Chemistry (3)

*NOTE: Major students may substitute this course for General Education Area F2. Please contact the University Advisement Center to request the course substitution.

**NOTE: Major students may substitute this course for General Education Area E. Please contact the University Advisement Center to request the course substitution.  

Minor in Biology (19-21 units)

The Biology Minor requires 19-21 units: 7-9 units are lower division requirements, which may also be used, where allowed, to satisfy General Education requirements; 12 units of upper division biology courses are required.

A. Lower Division Requirements (7-9 units):

BIO 102. General Biology (3) and

BIO 103. General Biology Laboratory (1) or

BIO 120. Principles of Biology I (3) and

BIO 121. Principles of Biology I Laboratory (1)

CHE 102. Chemistry for the Citizen (3) or

CHE 110. General Chemistry I (5)

B. Upper Division Requirements (12 units):

Select any 12 units of upper division biology courses; BIO 250 or BIO 254 may be included in the 12 units. At least three courses, or nine of the 12 units required must be upper division and at least six units must be taken in residence. No more than three units may be from BIO 394, Independent Study.

Students may select from the list below and/or any 300 and 400 level biology courses for which they have met the prerequisites.

BIO 250. Elements of Human Anatomy and Physiology (3) or

BIO 254. Human Biology (3)

BIO 336. Environmental Biology (3)

BIO 346. Human Heredity (3)

BIO 370. Biological Basis of Human Behavior (3)

BIO 374. Drug Abuse (3)

BIO 380. Biology of Childhood and Adolescence (3)

BIO 386. Human Aging (3)

BIO 395. Special Topics in Biology (2,3)

Minor in Microbiology (44-47 units)

The Microbiology Minor requires 44-47 units: 18 units are lower division courses, which also may be used, where allowed, to satisfy General Education requirements; 26-29 units of upper division biology and chemistry courses are required.

A. Lower Division Requirements (18 units):

BIO 120. Principles of Biology I (3)

BIO 121. Principles of Biology I Laboratory (1)

BIO 122. Principles of Biology II (3)

BIO 123. Principles of Biology II Laboratory (1)

CHE 110. General Chemistry I (5)

CHE 112. General Chemistry II (5)

B. Upper Division Requirements (26-29 units)

1. Required Courses (18-21 units):

BIO 320. Cell Biology (3) or

CHE 450. Biochemistry I (4) and

CHE 451. Biochemistry Laboratory I (1)

BIO 324. Microbiology (3)

BIO 325. Microbiology Laboratory (1)

BIO 426. Immunology (3)

BIO 436. Immunology Laboratory (1)

BIO 428. Virology (3)

CHE 310. Organic Chemistry I (4) and

CHE 311. Organic Chemistry Laboratory I (1) or

CHE 316. Survey of Organic Chemistry (3) and

CHE 317. Survey of Organic Chemistry Laboratory (1)

2. Select 8 units from the following (8 units):

BIO 310. Plant Physiology (3)

BIO 311. Plant Physiology Laboratory (1)

BIO 425. Medical Bacteriology (2)

BIO 435. Medical Bacteriology Laboratory (2)

BIO 458. Human Parasitology (3)

BIO 459. Human Parasitology Laboratory (1)

CHE 452. Biochemistry II (4)

Subject Matter Preparation Program in Biology

The Subject Matter Preparation Program is authorized by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. This course of study includes a number of prescribed courses that address proficiency standards for content knowledge required for the Single Subject credential in Biological Sciences. Interested students should contact the departmentally designated advisor for current information.

Specific Biological Sciences Subject Matter Authorization (32 units)

Holders of a Single Subject or Multiple Subject credential issued by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing may secure an additional Specific Biological Sciences Subject Matter Authorization that allows the holder to teach the specific subjects in grades preschool, K-12, and classes organized primarily for adults. 

For other requirements governing issuance of this authorization, consult the Teacher Education section of this catalog or contact the College of Education Student Services Center.

Complete each of the following courses or equivalent as approved by the Biology Department Advisor:

A.  Lower Division (21 units):

BIO 120. Principles of Biology I (3)

BIO 121. Principles of Biology I Laboratory (1)

BIO 122. Principles of Biology II (3)

BIO 123. Principles of Biology II Laboratory (1)

BIO 124. Principles of Biology III (3)

BIO 125. Principles of Biology III Laboratory (1)

BIO 250. Elements of Human Anatomy and Physiology (3)

BIO 251. Elements of Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory (1)      

CHE 110. General Chemistry I (5)

B.  Upper Division (11 units):

BIO 324. Microbiology (3)

BIO 325. Microbiology Laboratory (1)

BIO 336. Environmental Biology (3)

BIO 360. Marine Biology (3)

BIO 361. Marine Biology Laboratory (1)

Master of Science in Biology

About the Master's Program

The Master's Program in Biology is a two-year program in which a student must complete a required core of courses and additional elective courses. The academic program is expected to culminate in a thesis. During the first semester of the program, the student should choose a major advisor who will assist him or her in the choice of elective courses. The major advisor will chair the student's advisory committee for the thesis. Two additional members of the student's graduate advisory committee will need to be selected.

The graduate program can provide a strong background for future study in a doctoral program. It also provides graduate training as preparation for professional studies in medicine, dentistry or other health science fields. Students with a master's degree in biology are also prepared for a career in teaching and/or research.

Many graduate classes are scheduled to accommodate late afternoon and evening students.

Admission Requirements

Requirements for admission as a classified graduate student are a bachelor's degree in biology or a related field with a minimum grade point average of 2.75 in the last 60 semester (90 quarter) units of upper division course work, completion of the Graduation Writing Assessment Requirement (GWAR) at the graduate level and completion of courses equivalent to the CSU Dominguez Hills' degree in biology. Specifically, a student must have completed an upper division course in each of the subject areas listed below with a grade of "B" or better.

Subject Area
Cell Biology
Genetics
Experimental Laboratory
Animal, Human or Microbial Physiology
Evolution or Ecology
Statistics

Students who do not satisfy all these requirements may be admitted as a second baccalaureate student while they complete the requirements. Students who meet all but one requirement may be admitted as a conditionally classified graduate student at the discretion of the Biology Graduate Committee. They must meet any conditions by the end of the first semester in that status.

Final decision on admission to the graduate program is made by the Biology Graduate Committee.

Admission Procedures

Prospective graduate students must:

1. Submit an application to the University for admission (or readmission) with graduate standing, and official transcripts of all previous college work following the procedures outlined in the Admissions section of the University Catalog.

2. Submit to the Biology Graduate Program Coordinator, NSM A-143, CSU Dominguez Hills,1000 E. Victoria St., Carson, CA 90747.

  1. a second set of official transcripts;
  2. a letter describing interests, goals and expectations in pursuing the master's degree in biology;
  3. three letters of recommendation sent directly from individuals who can evaluate potential for graduate study;
  4. verification of completion of the Graduation Writing Assessment Requirement (GWAR) either by passing the Graduation Writing Examination (GWE) with a grade of eight or better or passing an approved course with a grade of "B" or better, before the student has completed 9 semester units;
  5. a departmental application.

Degree Requirements (30 units)

The Master of Science Degree in Biology requires completion of 30 units, at least 15 of which must be graduate (500-level) courses in biology.

A. Required Courses (19 units):

BIO 421. Advanced Molecular Biology (3) or

BIO 440. Molecular Genetics (3)

BIO 501. Biological Literature (3)

BIO 502. Biostatistics (3)

BIO 503. Biological Instrumentation (3)

BIO 520. Advances in Cell and Molecular Biology (3)

BIO 590. Graduate Seminar (2,2)

B. Electives (11 units):

Select from the following:

1. Other graduate (500 level) courses in biology. A required course indicated as being repeatable may be used both as a required course and as an elective.

2. Upper division (400 level) courses in biology.

3. BIO 597. Directed Reading (1-3)

BIO 598. Directed Research (1-3)

BIO 599. Thesis (1-4)

NOTE: Students completing a thesis may count a maximum of nine units of BIO 597, BIO 598 and BIO 599 combined. However, no more than six units of BIO 599 may be applied to the degree.

4. Any of the following courses:

CHE 320. Physical Chemistry I (5)

CHE 450. Biochemistry I (4)

CHE 451. Biochemistry Laboratory I (1)

CHE 452. Biochemistry II (4)

CHE 453. Biochemistry Laboratory II (2)

Students must take all courses within five years of the date of graduation. If approved by the Graduate Committee and the Graduate Dean, a student may revalidate a limited number of courses. However, under no circumstances can a course taken more than seven years before graduation be revalidated and counted in the program.

Grades

An overall "B" average is required in courses in the student's program and all courses must be passed with a grade of "B-" or above.

C. Thesis

Each student should select a major advisor to guide them in their program. The student and the major advisor will select two more faculty to serve as the student's graduate committee. At least two of the committee, including the chair, must be faculty from the CSUDH biology department. When additional expertise is required, the third member may be a faculty member from another department, or other academic institution.

The thesis is appropriate for all students and a necessity for those who plan a career in research and plan to continue to a doctoral program. The student and his or her major advisor will prepare a one or two page hypothesis-based proposal of the thesis research along with the time line of no more than two years to completion. This proposal is also to be approved by the two other members of the student's thesis committee and submitted to the Biology Graduate Committee for review and approval.

Upon the completion and acceptance of the thesis, the student and his or her advisor will arrange for an oral defense of the thesis. This ordinarily takes the form of a seminar to which the faculty, students and public are invited to attend.

D. Continuing Student Status

Students must maintain continuous enrollment throughout their time in the graduate program. Students who miss a semester will have to reapply to the university and to the program.

Students who have completed their course work and are working on their thesis may enroll in BIO 600 Graduate Continuation Course (0 units) to maintain continuous attendance. Students must be enrolled the semester they graduate.

E. Biology Graduate Program Policy on Revalidation of Outdated Course Work

The Biology Department requires that all course work taken in the master's degree program be completed within the five years immediately preceding the date of graduation.

Revalidation of outdated course work may be requested from the University Graduate Studies Office through the Biology Graduate Coordinator. Outdated course work means courses that were completed earlier than five years, and no more than seven years, immediately preceding the date of graduation. The request must be accompanied by a petition from the Biology Graduate Committee that verifies that the student has done one of the following:

  1. repeated the course and passed it with a grade of "B" or better;
  2. taken the exams and completed the assignments of the course as it is currently offered and earned a grade of "B" or better;
  3. taken and passed a special section of the written comprehensive which covers the course contents.

The choice of the revalidation method is at the discretion of the Biology Graduate Committee.

F. Classified Standing

If a student has been admitted as conditionally classified, he or she must fulfill the conditions for classified standing by the end of the first semester after admission. The student must submit an application for classified standing to the Dean of Graduate Studies, who will forward the request to the Biology Graduate Coordinator. To receive classified standing, the student must have:

  1. completed all prerequisite courses and requirements including the GWAR;
  2. a grade point average of 3.0 or better in all courses taken at CSUDH and received a grade of B- or better in all courses.

G. Advancement to Candidacy

An application for advancement to candidacy is submitted when the student has completed most of the course work and is completing the thesis. Application is made through the Biology Graduate Coordinator and must be done before the student can complete the thesis. This application will list the student's program of courses and other requirements which must be completed for the degree.

The student should have:

  1. classified standing;
  2. completed all required courses;
  3. taken the GRE by the semester he/she applies for graduation;
  4. maintained a minimum grade point average of 3.0 and received a grade of B- or better in all courses taken in the graduate program;
  5. approval of his or her thesis proposal by the graduate advisor and committee.

The Graduate Program Coordinator sends the advancement to candidacy form to the College Dean and Graduate Dean who forwards it to the graduation unit of the Registrar's Office. It is used for the degree check after the student has submitted an Application for Graduation form to the Office of the Registrar.

H. Master's Requirements

In addition to the program requirements, students must meet all university requirements for the master's degree. Students should consult the section of the catalog entitled "Requirements for the Master's Degree."

Course Offerings

The credit value for each course in semester units is indicated for each term by a number in parentheses following the title. For course availability, please see the list of tentative course offerings in the current Class Schedule.

Lower Division

BIO 102     General Biology (3).

Representative topics in modern biology, emphasizing the present state of knowledge and the major means whereby this knowledge is being expanded. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 103     General Biology Laboratory (1).

Prerequisite: BIO 102 (may be taken concurrently).

Laboratory work and demonstrations in representative areas of modern biology. Emphasizes scientific methodology. Three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 120    Principles of Biology I (3).

Prerequisite: CHE 108 or satisfactory performance on General Chemistry Placement Test. CHE 110 is recommended. Co-requisite: BIO 121.

Introduction to basic biological concepts including biochemistry and macromolecules, the structure and function of cells, basic genetic principles, DNA replication, transcription and translation. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 121     Principles of Biology I Laboratory (1).

Co-requisite: BIO 120.

Laboratory investigations of the properties of biological molecules and cells, metabolism, and patterns of inheritance. Modern laboratory techniques and application of the scientific method are emphasized. Three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 122     Principles of Biology II (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 120 and BIO 121, CHE 108 or satisfactory performance on General Chemistry Placement Test. CHE 110 is recommended. Co-requisite: BIO 123.

Introduction to basic biological concepts, including biology of prokaryotes, fungi, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, the anatomy and physiology of select organ systems. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 123     Principles of Biology II Laboratory (1).

Co-requisite: BIO 122.

Laboratory investigations demonstrating the major properties of the animal kingdom, plant structure and reproduction, vertebrate organ systems and animal fertilization. Application of the scientific method is emphasized. Three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 124     Principles of Biology III (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 122 and BIO 123. Co-requisite: BIO 125.

Introduction to basic concepts of evolution and ecology, including Darwinian evolution, biogeography, biodiversity, genomics, biomes, coevolution, and population, community, ecosystem, landscape, behavioral ecology. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 125     Principles of Biology III Laboratory (1).

Co-requisite: BIO 124

Fossils and stratigraphy, population genetics and ecology, field measurements in ecology and field trips to local ecosystems. Three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 190     Introduction to Marine Life (3).

General aspects of marine biology including the principles of physical and biological oceanography, the biological processes of marine life and the ecology of marine environments. Not open for credit toward the Biology Major.

BIO 195     Selected Topics in Biology (2, 3).

Introductory course of special interest in Biology for entry level students. Topic and content will vary as announced. Two to three hours of lecture per week. Not open for credit toward the Biology major.

BIO 220     Molecular Biology (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 122, BIO 123 and CHE 110. Co-requisite: BIO 221.

Principles of molecular biology including DNA replication, transcription, translation, DNA recombination and repair and gene regulation. Emphasis on prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 221     Molecular Biology Laboratory (1).

Co-requisite: BIO 220.

Basic laboratory techniques used in molecular biology, including DNA recombination, cDNAsynthesis, PCR, transfection, gel electrophoresis, protein purification, immunoblotting. Required laboratory reports. Three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 250     Elements of Human Anatomy and Physiology (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 102 or equivalent.

Basic principles of anatomical structure and physiological processes of human organ systems. Not open for credit toward the Biology major. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 251     Elements of Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory (1).

Co-requisite: BIO 250.

Laboratory work and demonstration in the anatomical structure and processes occurring in man. Not open for credit toward the Biology major. Three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 254     Human Biology (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 102 or equivalent.

Biological aspects of humans with emphasis on structure and function of organ systems. Additional topics may include human origins, diseases, and health aspects of human genetics and the environment. Not open for credit towards the Biology major. Three hours of lecture per week.

Upper Division

BIO 310     Plant Physiology (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 124, BIO 125. Co-requisite: BIO 311.

An introduction to cell metabolism in plants. Topics include photosynthesis, respiration, amino acid synthesis and lipid metabolism. Physiology of plants, including hormones,photoperiodism and circadian rhythms, will also be covered. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 311     Plant Physiology Laboratory (1).

Co-requisite: BIO 310.

Associated laboratory to BIO 310. Topics include photosynthesis, respiration, amino acid synthesis and lipid metabolism. Physiology of plants, including hormones, photoperiodismand circadian rhythms, will also be covered. Three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 312     Animal Physiology (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 124, BIO 125.  Co-requisite: BIO 313.

Introduction to comparative animal physiology with emphasis on the vertebrates. Topics include gas exchange, circulatory function, digestion temperature regulation, metabolism,osmoregulation and excretion. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 313     Animal Physiology Laboratory (1).

Co-requisite: BIO 312.

Laboratory work and demonstration of the principles on how physiological systems work in normal and stressed conditions. Exercises coordinate with and reinforce material presented in BIO 312. Three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 314     Developmental Biology (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 124, BIO 125. Co-requisite: BIO 315.

Development of animals from gametogenesis through organogenesis. Organismic approach to vertebrate embryonic development with emphasis on chick and selected comparison to frog and mammals. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 315     Developmental Biology Laboratory (1).

Co-requisite: BIO 314.

Laboratory work and examination of the developmental anatomy in the frog and chick embryos, fertilization and early development of sea urchin and isolation of chick muscle, organs and whole embryos. Three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 320     Cell Biology (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 220, BIO 221; CHE 310, CHE 311 or CHE 316, CHE 317.

Structure and function of eukaryotic cells with emphasis on the role of organic macromolecules, mechanisms of energy metabolism, DNA and protein synthesis, protein sorting, endo- and exocytosis, cell signaling, cytoskeletal elements, biotechnology and cell research techniques. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 324     Microbiology (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 122 and BIO 123. CHE 310 and CHE 311 or CHE 316 and CHE 317 are recommended. Co-requisite: BIO 325.

The morphology, physiology, genetics and classification of microorganisms; applied aspects of microbiology. Basic bacteriological techniques included in the laboratory. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 325     Microbiology Laboratory (1).

Co-requisite: BIO 324.

Use of basic bacteriological techniques, including correct use of compound microscope, standard staining for microorganism identification, routine aseptic inoculations and culturing microbes. Three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 332     Ecology (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 124, BIO 125.  Co-requisite: BIO 333.

Concepts in ecology including energy flow, biogeochemical cycles, community structure, succession, and population growth and interaction. Sampling techniques and use of ecological instrumentation learned in laboratory. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 333     Ecology Laboratory (1).

Co-requisite: BIO 332.

Laboratory work demonstrating principles of ecology, specifically the physical environment, adaptations of individuals, populations, communities of plants and animals, ecosystem, evolutionary ecology, biodiversity and biogeography, and interactions of human beings with the environment. Three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 336     Environmental Biology (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 102 or BIO 122.

Principles of ecology applied to contemporary environmental problems. Emphasis is placed upon human impact in Southern California. One day (18 hour) field trip is required. Not open for credit toward the Biology major.

BIO 340     Genetics (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 124, BIO 125, MAT 131. CHE 310 and CHE 311 or CHE 316 and CHE 317 are recommended.

Principles of heredity, gene expression at the molecular and organismic levels, variation and mutation. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 342     Cell and Genetics Laboratory (1).

Prerequisite: BIO 320 or BIO 340.

An introduction to modern techniques of biological research on cell biomolecules and genetics, with emphasis on microscopy, protein isolation and characterization, enzyme activity, electrophoresis of biomolecules, transformation and PCR. Three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 346     Human Heredity (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 102 or equivalent.

Introduction to human genetics, including human reproduction. Mendelian inheritance, chemical basis of gene action, mutation, and eugenics. Not open for credit toward the Biology major or to students with credit in BIO 340.

BIO 360     Marine Biology (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 124, BIO 125. Co-requisite: BIO 361.

Introduction to the biology of marine life. Includes a review of common marine organisms and their taxonomic placement. Also includes an ecological perspective on marine planktonic, nektonic, and benthic communities with emphasis on the intertidal habitats of Southern California. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 361     Marine Biology Laboratory (1).

Co-requisite: BIO 360.

The laboratory is devoted to learning the plants and animals common to each of a variety of local marine habitats. Several field trips are required. Transportation to field sites is the responsibility of each student. Three hours of laboratory or field work per week.

BIO 370     Biological Basis of Human Behavior (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 102 or equivalent.

Biological structure and function as it relates to human behavior. Emphasis on the structure of the central and peripheral nervous systems, sensory systems, neurotransmission, endocrine system and hormones, genetic influences, neuropharmacology and the impact of disease on human behavior. Not open for credit toward the Biology major.

BIO 374     Drug Abuse (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 102 or equivalent.

Introduction to the problem of drug abuse. The action of commonly abused drugs on the human nervous system will be examined including the physiological and behavioral effects which are produced. Not open for credit toward the Biology major.

BIO 380     Biology of Childhood and Adolescence (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 250 or BIO 254.

The physiology of growth and development through the second decade of life; reproductive maturation and the hormonal regulation of puberty; common illnesses, growth disorders and health hazards, including a brief introduction to venereal diseases and drug abuse. Not open for credit toward the Biology major.

BIO 386     Human Aging (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 250 or BIO 254.

The effects of aging on the structure and physiology of the human body and the effects of drugs used in the treatment of the elderly. Not open for credit toward the Biology major.

BIO 394     Independent Study (1,2,3).

Prerequisite: BIO 124, BIO 125.

Advanced library, field or laboratory work. A contract must be signed by the student and supervising faculty. Credit in this course is contingent upon completion of a written report of work accomplished. Not more than three units may be applied toward the Biology major or minor. Repeatable course.

BIO 395     Special Topics in Biology (2,3).

Prerequisites: BIO 102 or equivalent or consent of instructor.

Courses of special interest in Biology for students not majoring in the field. Topic and content will vary as announced. Not open for credit toward the Biology major. Repeatable course. Two or three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 416     Landscape Ecology (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 124 and BIO 125. BIO 332 and BIO 333 are recommended.

Interrelationships among ecosystems in space and time. How abiotic, biotic, and historical factors and disturbance combine to shape present-day landscapes. Use of computer technologies, such as remote sensing and geographic information systems, to study landscape characteristics. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 419     Histotechnique Laboratory (2).

Co-requisite: BIO 420.

Preparation of normal and abnormal tissues for microscopic study. Methods of preparation of tissues for sectioning with paraffin and freezing microtomes. Methods of fixation, dehydration, infiltration, embedding and sectioning tissues. Application of different stains on tissues. Six hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 420     Histotechnique (2).

Prerequisite: BIO 122, BIO 123.  Co-requisite: BIO 419.

Preparation of tissues for microscopic study, with emphasis on paraffin embedding and staining. Two hours of lecture per week.

BIO 421     Advanced Molecular Biology (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 220, BIO 221, BIO 320, BIO 340, BIO 342, CHE 310 and CHE 311.

Recombinant DNA techniques used in the study of genome organization and gene structure, expression and regulation; emphasis on eukaryotic cells. One hour of lecture and six hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 422     Histology (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 250 or BIO 312, BIO 313 and CHE 310, CHE 311 or CHE 316, CHE 317.
Co-requisite: BIO 424.

Microscopic study of the structure and function of cells and tissues and their integration into organs. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 424     Histology Laboratory (1).

Co-requisite: BIO 422.

Microscopic study of the structure and function of cells and tissues and their integration into organs. Three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 425     Medical Bacteriology (2).

Prerequisites: BIO 324, BIO 325, CHE 310, CHE 311 or CHE 316, CHE 317. Co-requisite: BIO 435.

Characteristics of bacterial agents in human disease emphasizing host-parasite relationships, epidemiology and infection control. Two hours of lecture per week.

BIO 426     Immunology (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 320 or BIO 340; BIO 342 is recommended. Co-requisite: BIO 436.

Principles of immunology. Emphasis on the cellular and molecular nature of antigens andimmunoglobulins; immunobiology; laboratory immunoassays. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 428     Virology (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 324, BIO 325 and CHE 310, CHE 311 or CHE 316, CHE 317; BIO 425 is recommended.

The anatomy, biochemistry, physiology and pathogenesis of bacterial and animal viruses emphasizing virus diseases of humans. Topics include structure, classification, theory and practical aspects of growth, purification and identification, host-virus interactions, tumor viruses and antiviral agents. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 430     Comparative Biology: A Phylogenetic Approach (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 124, BIO 125 and BIO 340. BIO 332 is recommended.

Strategies for rigorous comparisons of different species: Permissions (legal), collection, identification (diagnosis), taxonomy, maintenance-alive and preserved, character state description, phylogenetic analysis and biogeography. Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 435     Medical Bacteriology Laboratory (2).

Co-requisite: BIO 425.

Laboratory methods used. Medical bacteriology, including detection, isolation and identification of medically important bacteria. Six hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 436     Immunology Laboratory (1).

Co-requisite: BIO 426.

Principles of immunology. Emphasis on the cellular and molecular nature of antigens andimmunoglobulins; immunobiology; laboratory immunoassays. Three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 440     Molecular Genetics (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 320 and BIO 340.

Genome structure in relation to control of gene expression in prokaryotic and eucaryotic cells; interplay between genes and regulatory reactions that control development. Topics include antibody diversity, neoplastic transformation by oncogenes, and pattern formation. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 442     Human Genetics (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 320 and BIO 340. BIO 440 is recommended.

Principles of human genetics including cytogenetics, Mendelian inheritance, pedigree construction, complex patterns of inheritance, biochemical defects, gene mapping,hemoglobinopathies, molecular genetics, prenatal diagnosis and gene therapy. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 452     Minority Health Disparities (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 312. BIO 320 is recommended.

The course deals with the issue of minority health disparities from the many possible causes and treatments to ways to address this problem in the future. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 453     Endocrinology (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 312, BIO 313 and BIO 320.

The role of endocrine glands and tissues in metabolic regulation, environmental adjustment, reproduction, and development of vertebrates, with emphasis on mammals. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 458     Human Parasitology (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 122 and BIO 123. Co-requisite: BIO 459.

Physiological aspects of parasites in man, their symbiotic host and parasite relationships and clinical diagnostic techniques. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 459 Human Parasitology Laboratory (1).

Co-requisite: BIO 458.

Physiological aspects of parasites in man, their symbiotic host and parasite relationships and clinical diagnostic techniques. Three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 483     Human Physiology (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 312 or BIO 320.

Advanced lecture and discussion of the functional activities occurring in the human organ systems. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 490     Senior Project (3).

Prerequisites: Senior standing; completion of lower division general education courses, GWAR, statistics, and required courses in the biology major.

Application and assessment of previously learned material in courses required in biology and general education. Activities such as the design and conduct of an experiment requiring statistical analysis, resume writing, oral presentations on career choices, and critiques of classmates presentations. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 491     Seminar in Biological and Biomedical Research (1).

Prerequisite: Permission by professor.

Current topics in biological and biomedical research presented by CSUDH faculty and prominent scientists from throughout the country. CR/NC grading. Repeatable for up to 2 units.

BIO 495     Selected Topics in Biology (2, 3).

Prerequisite: BIO 124 and BIO 125.

Advanced course of special interest for students majoring in Biology. May include laboratory exercises. Topic and content will vary as announced. Repeatable course. Two to three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 496     Internship (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 124 and BIO 125. Recommended prerequisites: BIO 332 and BIO 333.

This course is available as an elective in the BS Biology Ecology and Environmental Biology option only. Supervised internship in ecological setting off-campus. A maximum of three units may be applied to the Biology major.

BIO 498           Directed Research (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 124 and BIO 125. Recommended prerequisites: BIO 332 and BIO 333.

This course is available as an elective in the BS Biology Ecology and Environmental Biology option only. This class is intended to allow students to receive ecological research experience off-campus. A maximum of three units may be applied to the Biology major.

Graduate

Graduate standing in the biology program is prerequisite to enrollment in graduate (500) level courses.

BIO 501     Biological Literature (3).

Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the Graduation Writing Requirement (GWAR).

Standard forms of presentation of scientific research, including research articles, review papers, abstracts, poster and oral presentations. Sources of biological literature and contemporary literature search skills as well as data presentation formats and technical writing conventions will be addressed. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 502     Biostatistics (3).

Prerequisite: MAT 131 or equivalent.

Application of statistical analyses to biological research with emphasis on experimental design. Analysis of variance, regression and correlation will be the primary topics. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 503     Biological Instrumentation (3).

Introduction to the operation and application of common instruments used in biological research. Emphasis on those instruments available for graduate research. Two hours of lecture and two hours of activity per week.

BIO 510     Urban Environmental Science (3).

Overview of environmental science. Problems specific to urban context. Pollution of the air, water, etc, land-use change, environmental conflicts. Hands-on analysis of environmental conditions in Los Angeles area. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 520     Advances in Cell and Molecular Biology (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 421 or BIO 440.

Current developments in the structure and function of viruses, prokaryotic cells, and eukaryotic cells. Three hours of lecture per week. Repeatable for credit in biology master's program for up to six units.

BIO 522     Applied Biotechnology Skills III (3).

Prerequisite: Survey of Biotechnology and Applied Skills I and II.

PABS Skills III is a graduate course for students in the PSM program. In this course, students will learn advanced molecular biology techniques including isolation of DNA and RNA, Southern and Northern blots, transcriptional profiling, and siRNA mediated gene silencing.

BIO 590     Graduate Seminar (2).

Presentation and discussion of selected topics in Biological Science. A minimum of two and a maximum of four units may be applied toward the biology master's degree. The repeated courses must be taught by different instructors or must be on different topics. Two hours of seminar per week.

BIO 595     Graduate Selected Topics in Biology (2-3).

Advanced course of special interest to graduate students in Biology. Topic and content will vary as announced. Repeatable course. Two to three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 597     Directed Reading (1-3).

Library research on a specific subject in biology. Topic for study to be approved and directed by instructor. Can be used to prepare for the comprehensive examinations or to formulate a research problem prior to enrollment in BIO 598 or BIO 599. A maximum of three units may be applied toward the master's degree. Repeatable course.

BIO 598     Directed Research (1-3).

Laboratory research on a specific subject in biology. Topic of research to be approved and directed by an instructor. A maximum of three units may be applied toward the master's degree. Repeatable course.

BIO 599     Thesis (1-4).

Laboratory research and writing of thesis for the master's degree. Topic of research to be approved by graduate advisor. A maximum of 9 units of BIO 597, 598 and 599 combined may be applied toward the master's degree. Open only to thesis option graduate students. Repeatable course.

BIO 600     Graduate Continuation Course (0).

Graduate students who have completed their course work but not their thesis, project, or comprehensive examinations, or who have other requirements remaining for the completion of their degree, may maintain continuous attendance by enrolling in this course. Signature of graduate program coordinator required.

Infrequently Offered Courses

The following courses are scheduled only on a "demand" basis. Students should consult the department office for information about the next scheduled offering.

BIO 412     Comparative Vertebrate Biology (4).

Prerequisites: BIO 124, BIO 125 and BIO 312, BIO 313.

Vertebrate evolution, classification and ecology and adaptive morphology will be investigated through observations of behavior, study of fossils, and comparative anatomy dissections. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Several field trips, including one or more weekend trips required.

BIO 423     Fine Structure (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 320 or BIO 422 and BIO 424.

Structure and function of eucaryotic sub-cellular constituents at the light and electron microscopic and biochemical level.

BIO 427     Clinical Mycology (3).

Prerequisites: BIO 324 and BIO 325. BIO 425 and BIO 435 are recommended.

Comparative morphology, physiology and pathogenicity of medically important fungi. Laboratory methods for identification emphasize interpretation and evaluation of results including the recognition of contaminating or opportunistic organisms. Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

BIO 523     Electron Microscopy (3).

Prerequisite: BIO 421.

Theory and use of the electron microscopy preparation of tissue and photographic techniques. One hour of lecture and six hours of laboratory per week.